Additional to the field types image/file, text and number relative recently core got email and link fields.
If you have been using drupal since for example Drupal 5 you will remember that just using core wasn't that helpful to actually build a real website. Most people downloaded cck, the imagefield module and probably also views.
For real websites modules like email and link have also been really popular, so for example there are 72114 sites using email and 170570 sites using link module, Additional many sites would be able to upgrade earlier if these modules exists in core.
If you look at the settings picture you will see that the amount
of options compared to the contrib variants have been reduced
to support the most common usecase. Here is a comparison
between the features of the contrib and the core modules
but as you will see, in core is what you need.
|Link in Drupal 7||Link in Drupal 8|
|URL, attribute, title,|
|enable trimminging of the url||URL and title|
|Link, URL, title, Short Link,|
|Title and URL separated||Link, URL, title, Shortened Link, Title and URL separated|
At the end it works like you expected and you get a nice output of your link by just using drupal 8 core!